CIRCULATION, circulation-circulation, many. circulations, ·муж. (·франц. draw, ·букв. pulling out).1. The next drawing of lots to determine that part of the bonds of the winning loan or other type of obligation, which must be repaid this time by returning the value of the bonds to their owners. This bond is now in circulation (lot has fallen on it and it must be redeemed).| Drawing of winnings in a loan or lottery. In the last draw, I won a thousand rubles. 2. Number of copies, in which published or published any printed edition. Newspaper with two million circulation or circulation. The works of Russian classics were published during the Soviet era in huge editions. 3. Number of manufactured products (e.g.. in wine business; specialist.).• Log out (go out) in circulation (iron.) – feathers
go out (go out) out of use, cease (to stop) enjoy attention, recognition, become (become) obsolete. This singer is already in circulation.
"Generals, which have not yet appeared in circulation, are for the most part part of some strong central institutions. " Leskov.
Definition of the word "Circulation" by TSB:
Circulation - publications (France. draw), number of copies of a printed edition of one title. In the USSR, etc.. socialist countries T. periodicals (newspapers, magazines) determined by the publisher by the number of subscribers (including also retail). T. books, brochures, etc.. P. established by the publishing house in conjunction with bookselling organizations (on a planned basis after studying the reader's demand). Usually small T. (to 15 thousand copies), average (to 100 thousand copies) and massive (over 100 thousand copies). Mass T. due to the large volume of printing work, they are usually printed in parts, called factories. With the release of some types of literature T. edition affects the amount of the royalties. Usually T. editions are indicated in the imprint. In capitalist countries T. determined by publishers, based on the situation on the book market and the expected profit (usually, T. not specified).
Books of the early period of printing of the 15th-16th centuries, so-called incunabula, usually had a circulation up to 500 copies. Circulation of the first Russian book, "Apostle" 1564 of the year, defined in different ways - from 600 to 2000 copies. In the 17th century, the standard circulation of Russian books was established in 1200 copies (one hundred dozen, t. n. "output"). Many popular publications have exceeded this number., for example, "Azbuka" Burtsov 1634 of the year came out in a huge by the standards of that time in 6000 copies. Despite the general development of the printing business, the circulation of books remained low until the 1880s - 1200 or 2400 copies.
Circulation of periodicals (magazines, almanacs, newspapers) were also insignificant. The average circulation of the magazine at the beginning of the 19th century was 500 copies, just some magazines, such as "Library for reading", "Northern Bee" or "Notes of the Fatherland", reached records of 3-5 thousand. In the second half of the 19th century, circulation gradually increased: the average circulation of a thick magazine was 3-5 thousand. copies, thin - to 50 thous., newspapers - to 25 thousand. By this period, book supplements to magazines became the main popularizers of literature., whose circulation, such as "Rodina", reached to 120 thousand.
The circulation of the first Russian newspaper Vedomosti ranged from 30 to 4000 copies. By the 1890s, the circulation of individual newspapers reached 50-70 thousand. copies, after the 1905-1907 revolution, newspaper circulation increased even more, reaching the western European level.
Circulation, duplication and circulation of printed products.
The term replication, entered tightly into everyday life from the world of printing, has its roots in France, originating from the French word “draw” (release, seal).
In the modern sense, circulation – this is the number of copies of a given publication (subject), having one name, type and type.
The most common concept of replication for periodicals of printed products, which include newspapers. magazines and other printing,, periodical. The definition of such circulation is formed by the publisher, based on the number of subscribers, copies are also added, distributed via retail.
When it comes to duplicating books and brochures, as well as similar printing products (non-recurrent printing – flyers, brochures, catalogs, books, brochures, etc.), then the circulation is formed on the basis of preliminary research by the marketing department of the publishing house of the reader (shopping) demand.
The circulation of printed products is divided into three main categories by volume:
- Short edition – the number of copies of printed products does not exceed 1500;
- Average circulation – the number of copies of printed products does not exceed 10000;
- Long circulation – number of copies over 10000.
For mass replication (long runs), associated with large volumes of printing work, the total number of copies is split into parts, which are called factories, and the printing of the entire edition takes place in several stages (factories), agreed in quantity and time.
In its turn, runs are subdivided into trial, one-off, average, general, annual and additional (additional print run or additional print run).
Trial edition – it is single (or initial) circulation of printed products, which bears the function of identifying the demand for a manufactured product. If demand exceeds the number of printed products released, then the print run is made, if the printed products are not in demand, then it is removed from replication, which significantly saves customer costs.
One-time circulation – this is a duplication of one issue, numbers of periodicals or duplication of non-periodical printed products (booklet, brochure, leaflet, poster, etc.).
Average circulation – this value is calculated by obtaining the quotient when dividing the sum of the circulations of all publications, which are subject to review, by their number.
Total circulation – this value is calculated by obtaining the sum of all circulation of publications, issued by one or more publishers for the selected (certain) time period.
Annual circulation – similar in its calculation to the total circulation, with only one condition, that the amount is calculated per year.
Thus, the circulation of one idea can be calculated., several publishers, all publishers for one country and several countries.
Based on the calculation of the annual replication, the author's royalties are calculated.
Additional circulation (reprint circulation) – production of an unscheduled print run, due to the high demand for the product, after the delivery of the main edition.
Additional circulation within one year also affects the calculation of royalties. Additional circulation (reprint circulation) necessarily displayed in the release data circulation information in parentheses (additional circulation) or (reprint circulation).
Duplication of printed products is carried out using various printing machines, which are selected depending on the type of circulation (short, average, long), product format and color.
Mass replication (or long runs) carried out using offset or flexographic printing equipment, for small and medium editions (short and medium editions) Various laser and digital printers are great, copiers, duplicators, risographs and equipment for silk screen printing.
I.e, replication technologies can be classified by type of circulation:
- Silkscreen, pad printing and digital printing – short runs;
- Rhizography – average circulation;
- Offset and flexography – long runs.
This division of printing technologies for replication, although it is generally accepted, but when choosing equipment and technology for replicating specific printing products, you should also take into account its characteristics (format, material, colorfulness and life expectancy): eg, direct printing of images on bulk souvenir products is possible only by silk-screen printing and pad printing.